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LymeScience republishes articles and documents for educational and commentary purposes. We may also improve formatting or provide translations. Documents that are easily accessible elsewhere are generally not listed here.

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Documents are also linked in the Rogues Gallery Index.

Monaghan M, et al. Pediatric Lyme disease: systematic assessment of post-treatment symptoms and quality of life. Pediatr Res. 2024. [Paper and response to dangerous ILADS quack Rosalie Greenberg]

Burgdorfer W. Artificial feeding of ixodid ticks for studies on the transmission of disease agents. J Infect Dis. 1957 May-Jun;100(3):212-4. [Conspiracy theorists are using a cherry-picked image from this paper to make false allegations of bioweapons]

Guillaume Coiffier, Pierre Tattevin. Lyme disease: ”End of the debate?” Joint Bone Spine, 2021

Strizova Z, Patek O, Vitova L, Horackova M, Bartunkova J. Internet-based self-diagnosis of Lyme disease caused death in a young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. Joint Bone Spine. 2019.

Translations of press releases from the French National Academy of Medicine. 2016-2018.

Boozalis E, et al. Demographic characteristics of teenage boys with horizontal striae distensae of the lower back. Pediatr Dermatol. 2017. [Debunking claims that stretch marks mean bartonella]

Lanzi RA. Lyme disease control in face of tick phobia. Pa Med. 1991 Apr;94(4):14-7. [full issue]

Sautter RD. Lyme hysteria. Wis Med J. 1989 Jul;88(7):5. [full issue]

Sigal LH. Clinical manifestations of Lyme disease. N J Med. 1990 Jul;87(7):549-55. [full issue]

Melanson VR, et al. The Epistemic Fallacy: Unintended Consequences of Empirically Treating (Clinically Diagnosed) Chronic Lyme Disease in a Soldier. Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex). 2022. [pdf]

McPhail M. Making Lyme Disease Law: The Role of Patient Advocacy in Health Law and Policy. Queen’s Policy Review. 2017.

Piesman J, Eisen L. Prevention of tick-borne diseases. Annu Rev Entomol. 2008.

Sigal LH. Pseudo-Lyme disease. Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases. 1995. [pdf]

Quintiliani R, Levitz RE. Clinical manifestations and antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Conn Med. 1992.

Beck AR, et al. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Practices for Lyme Disease by Clinicians, United States, 2013-2015. Public Health Rep. 2021.

Letters from Christina Hermos, MD and other medical professionals in response to the 2016 insurance mandate

NIH Statement: Reliability of Blood and Urine Tests for Lyme Disease. 2001.

Cartter ML, et al. Lyme disease surveillance in the United States: Looking for ways to cut the Gordian knot. Zoonoses Public Health. 2018.

Gentilini M, Bricaire F. Chronic Lyme disease: A scam that should be condemned! Med Mal Infect. 2019. [original, pdf]

CDC Division Director: Long-term antibiotics not warranted for Lyme treatment. 2013.

Pappolla MA, et al. Concurrent neuroborreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease: analysis of the evidence. Hum Pathol. 1989.

Lowry L, et al. Anchoring Bias on Lyme Disease Leading to Delayed Diagnoses. Mil Med. 2020. [pdf, which includes typos]

Nelson RE, et al. Evaluation of serological testing for Lyme disease in Military Health System beneficiaries in Germany, 2013-2017. MSMR. 2019;26(8):22-26. [HTML | PDF]

Shelton A, et al. A case of Mycobacterium goodii infection related to an indwelling catheter placed for the treatment of chronic symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. Infect Dis Rep. 2019 [pdf]

llison Lardieri , et al. Harmful effects of chlorine dioxide exposure. Clinical Toxicology. 2020. [pdf]

Feder HM Jr, et al. A critical appraisal of “chronic Lyme disease”. N Engl J Med. 2007. [pdf]

Prost, N, et al. “Fake Lyme, real Lyell! When non-compliance with HAS recommendations leads a patient to intensive care… “ [original French, « Faux Lyme, vrai Lyell ! Quand le non-respect des recommandations HAS conduit une patiente en réanimation… »]

Halperin, J. A Walk in the Woods—But no Ticks Please. 2015.

Olives, T, et al. Multistate response to an outbreak of T3 thyroid storm following 1,000-fold compounding pharmacy error. 2016.

UK panel: Independent Appraisal and Review of ILADS 2004 ‘Evidence-based guidelines for the management of Lyme disease’. 2010. [pdf]

Duerden, B. Unorthodox and unvalidated laboratory tests in the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis and in relation to medically unexplained symptoms. 2006.

Sigal LH, Hassett AL. Contributions of societal and geographical environments to “chronic Lyme disease”: the psychopathogenesis and aporology of a new “medically unexplained symptoms” syndrome. Environ Health Perspect. 2002. [pdf]

Listernick, RH. A 17-year-old Boy Previously Diagnosed With Chronic Lyme Disease. Pediatric Annals. 2004.

Patmas MA. Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome not associated with L-tryptophan. N J Med. 1992.

Ettestad, et al. Biliary complications in the treatment of unsubstantiated Lyme disease, 1995.

Michael, C, et al. Disulfiram-Induced Psychosis in an Adolescent Treated for Chronic Lyme Disease: A Case Report and Review of Related Literature. 2021.

Check JH, Cohen R. Sympathetic neural hyperalgesia edema syndrome, a frequent cause of pelvic pain in women, mistaken for Lyme disease with chronic fatigue. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2011

Portman DB. Implementing a pharmacist-run Lyme disease postexposure prophylaxis clinic augmented by academic detailing within the Veterans Health Administration. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020.

Pappolla MA, et al. Concurrent neuroborreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease: analysis of the evidence. Hum Pathol. 1989.

Wormser GP, Marques A, Pavia CS, Schwartz I, Feder HM, Pachner AR. Lack of Convincing Evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi Infection Causes Either Alzheimer’s Disease or Lewy Body Dementia. Clin Infect Dis. 2021.

AMA, American Medical News, Separating symptoms from hysteria, 1989, September 22/29, pp. 9-11.

AMA, American Medical News, It’s not easy to separate the diagnosis from the patient, 1991, Nov 27, p. 27.

AMA, American Medical News, Letter to the editor: Patients fixated on Lyme disease, 1992, January 13.


Various Authors. New York State Journal of Medicine articles on Health Fraud. February 1993.

Various Authors. Medical Quackery in Rhode Island. April 1990.

Green, Saul. The Realities of Alternative Medicine for Serious Illness. 1998.

FDA employees. Harmful effects of chlorine dioxide exposure. 2020.

Epidemiology and surveillance

Earley AR, et al. Epidemiologic and tick exposure characteristics among people with reported Lyme disease – Minnesota, 2011-2019. Zoonoses Public Health. 2024.

Kugeler KJ, et al. Potential quantitative effect of a laboratory-based approach to Lyme disease surveillance in high-incidence states. Zoonoses Public Health. 2022.

Kugeler KJ, et al. Changing Trends in Age and Sex Distributions of Lyme Disease—United States, 1992-2016. Public Health Reports. June 2021.

Rutz H, et al. Impacts of misclassification on Lyme disease surveillance. Zoonoses Public Health. 2019.

Webber BJ, et al. Lyme Disease Overdiagnosis in a Large Healthcare System: A Population-based, Retrospective Study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019. [HTML version]

Webber BJ, et al. Lyme Disease Overdiagnosis in a Large Healthcare System: A Population-based, Retrospective Study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019.

Hook SA, et al. U.S. public’s experience with ticks and tick-borne diseases: Results from national HealthStyles surveys. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015.

O’Donnell FL, et al. Surveillance for Vector-borne Diseases Among Active and Reserve Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2016-2020. MSMR. 2021. [HTML version]

Lehane A, et al. Prevalence of single and coinfections of human pathogens in Ixodes ticks from five geographical regions in the United States, 2013-2019. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2021.

Beck A, et. al. Tick bite frequency, prevention practices and Lyme disease diagnoses among U.S. Hispanic survey respondents. Zoonoses Public Health. 2021.

Forrester JD, et al. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in low-incidence states. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015

Little EAH, et al. Predicting spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease incidence from passively collected surveillance data for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019.

Foster E, et al. Inter-annual variation in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) at long-term surveillance sites in the upper midwestern United States: Implications for public health practice. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2022.

Psevdos G, et al. Epidemiology of Lyme disease among US Veterans in Long Island, New York. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019.

Eisen L. Tick species infesting humans in the United States. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2022.

Hahn MB, et al. Ticks and tick-borne microbes identified through passive and active surveillance in Alaska. J Med Entomol. 2023.


CDC: Prophylactic Tactics: Antibiotics after Tick-Bite for Prevention of Tickborne Diseases. 2015.

Niesobecki S, et al. Willingness to Pay for Select Tick-Borne Disease Prevention Measures in Endemic Areas. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2021.

Gould LH, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding Lyme disease prevention among Connecticut residents, 1999-2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008.

Niesobecki S, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tick-borne disease prevention in endemic areas. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019.

Beck A, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tick-borne disease prevention in Lyme disease-endemic areas of the Upper Midwest, United States. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2022.


Nelson RE, et al. Evaluation of serological testing for Lyme disease in Military Health System beneficiaries in Germany, 2013-2017. MSMR. 2019;26(8):22-26. [HTML version]

Nigrovic LE, et al. Higher C6 enzyme immunoassay index values correlate with a diagnosis of noncutaneous Lyme disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019.

Brandt KS, et al. Evaluation of in vivo expressed Borrelia burgdorferi antigens for improved IgM serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019.

Nelson CA. PCR for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Is It Useful? 2012.

Lyme disease vaccines

Devchand R, et al. Understanding consumer and clinician perceptions of a potential Lyme disease vaccine. Health Educ Res. 2021.

Zhao H, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine: A meta-analysis. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2017.

Lathrop SL, et al. Adverse event reports following vaccination for Lyme disease: December 1998-July 2000. Vaccine. 2002.

Hook, et al. Evaluating public acceptability of a potential Lyme disease vaccine using a population-based, cross-sectional survey in high incidence areas of the United States. Vaccine. 2021. [Alternative URL]


Nelson CA, et al. Cat scratch disease: U.S. clinicians’ experience and knowledge. Zoonoses Public Health. 2018.

Other useful documents:

Updated June 2, 2024